baxter lab
glickenhaus laboratory of neuropsychology



Raper J, Alvarado MC, Murphy KL, Baxter MG (2015) Multiple anesthetic exposure in infant monkeys alters emotional reactivity to an acute stressor. Anesthesiology 123:1084-1092.
Koike H, Demars MP, Short JA, Nabel EM, Akbarian S, Baxter MG, Morishita H (2015) Chemogenetic inactivation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex neurons disrupts attentional behavior in mouse. Neuropsychopharmacology, published online July 30, 2015.


Amrock LG, Starner ML, Murphy KL, Baxter MG (2014) Long-term effects of single or multiple neonatal sevoflurane exposures on rat hippocampal ultrastructure. Anesthesiology 122:87-95, published online October 6, 2014.
Morrison JH, Baxter MG (2014) Synaptic health. JAMA Psychiatry 71:835-837.


O'Reilly JX, Croxson PL, Jbabdi S, Sallet J, Noonan MP, Mars RB, Browning PG, Wilson CR, Mitchell AS, Miller KL, Rushworth MF, Baxter MG (2013) Causal effect of disconnection lesions on interhemispheric functional connectivity in rhesus monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110:13982-13987.
Murphy KL, Baxter MG (2013) Long-term effects of neonatal single or multiple isoflurane exposures on spatial memory in rats. Frontiers in Neurology 4:87.
Browning PG, Baxter MG, Gaffan D (2013) Prefrontal-temporal disconnection impairs recognition memory but not familiarity discrimination. Journal of Neuroscience 33:9667-9674.
Baxter MG, Roberts MT, Gee NA, Lasley BL, Morrison JH, Rapp PR (2013) Multiple clinically relevant hormone therapy regimens fail to improve cognitive function in aged ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Neurobiology of Aging 34:1882-1890.

Shen X, Dong Y, Xu Z, Wang H, Miao C, Soriano SG, Sun D, Baxter MG, Zhang Y, Xie Z (2013) Selective anesthesia-induced neuroinflammation in developing mouse brain and cognitive impairment. Anesthesiology 118:502-515


Croxson PL, Browning PG, Gaffan D, Baxter MG (2012) Acetylcholine facilitates recovery of episodic memory after brain damage. Journal of Neuroscience 32:13787-13795.

Deiner S, Baxter MG (2012) Cognitive dysfunction after inhalation versus intravenous anesthesia in elderly patients. Anesthesiology 117:676-678.
Baxter MG (2012) It's all coming back to me now: Perception and memory in amnesia. Neuron 75:8-10.
Morrison JH, Baxter MG (2012) The ageing cortical synapse: hallmarks and implications for cognitive decline. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13:240-250.


Croxson PL, Kyriazis DA, Baxter MG (2011) Cholinergic modulation of a specific memory function of prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience 14:1510-1512.

Mars RB, Jbabdi S, Sallet J, O'Reilly JX, Croxson PL, Olivier E, Noonan MP, Bergmann C, Mitchell AS, Baxter MG, Behrens TE, Johansen-Berg H, Tomassini V, Miller KL, Rushworth MF (2011) Diffusion-weighted imaging tractography-based parcellation of the human parietal cortex and comparison with human and macaque resting-state functional connectivity. Journal of Neuroscience 31:4087-4100.
Palanisamy A, Baxter MG, Keel PK, Xie Z, Crosby G, Culley DJ (2011) Rats exposed to isoflurane in utero during early gestation are behaviorally abnormal as adults. Anesthesiology 114:521-528.


Wilson CR, Gaffan D, Browning PG, Baxter MG (2010) Functional localization within the prefrontal cortex: missing the forest for the trees? Trends Neurosci 33:533-540. 
Shamy JL, Baxter MG (2010) Statistical considerations in the evaluation of potential contributions of individual neurobiological differences to cognitive performance. Neurobiol Aging 31:2176-2178.
Easton A, Fitchett AE, Eacott MJ, Baxter MG (2010) Medial septal cholinergic neurons are necessary for context-place memory but not episodic-like memory. Hippocampus 21:1021-1027.
Burnham KE, Bannerman DM, Dawson LA, Southam E, Sharp T, Baxter MG (2010) Fos expression in the brains of rats performing an attentional set-shifting task. Neuroscience 171:485-495.


Browning PG, Gaffan D, Croxson PL, Baxter MG (2009) Severe scene learning impairment, but intact recognition memory, after cholinergic depletion of inferotemporal cortex followed by fornix transection. Cereb Cortex 20:282-293.
Baxter MG (2009) Involvement of medial temporal lobe structures in memory and perception. Neuron 61:667-677.

Jhou TC, Fields HL, Baxter MG, Saper CB, Holland PC (2009) The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine neurons, encodes aversive stimuli and inhibits motor responses. Neuron 61:786-800.

Baxter MG, Gaffan D, Kyriazis DA, Mitchell AS (2009) Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex is required for performance of a strategy implementation task but not reinforcer devaluation effects in rhesus monkeys. Eur J Neurosci 29:2049-2059.


Baxter MG, Browning PGF, Mitchell AS (2008) Perseverative infererence with object-in-place scene learning in rhesus monkeys with bilateral ablation of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Learn Mem 15:126-132.

Baxter MG, Gaffan D, Kyriazis DA, Mitchell AS (2008) Dorsolateral prefrontal lesions do not impair tests of scene learning and decision-making that require frontal-temporal interaction. Eur J Neurosci 28:491-499.

Baxter MG, Murphy KL, Crosby G, Culley DJ (2008) Different behavioral effects of neurotoxic dorsal hippocampal lesions placed under either isoflurane or propofol anesthesia. Hippocampus 18:245-250.

Lee IH, Culley DJ, Baxter MG, Xie Z, Tanzi RE, Crosby G (2008) Spatial memory is intact in aged rats after propofol anesthesia. Anesth Analg 107:1211-1215.

Mitchell AS, Browning PG, Wilson CR, Baxter MG, Gaffan D (2008) Dissociable roles for cortical and subcortical structures in memory retrieval and acquisition. J Neurosci 28:8387-8396.

Rudebeck PH, Behrens TE, Kennerley SW, Baxter MG, Buckley MJ, Walton ME, Rushworth MF (2008) Frontal cortex subregions play distinct roles in choices between actions and stimuli. J Neurosci 28:13775-13785.

Wilson CRE, Baxter MG, Easton A, Gaffan D (2008) Addition of fornix transection to frontal-temporal disconnection increases the impairment in object-in-place memory in macaque monkeys. Eur J Neurosci 27:1814-1822.


Wilson CRE, Gaffan D, Mitchell AS, Baxter MG (2007) Neurotoxic lesions of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex impair object-in-place scene memory. Eur J Neurosci 25:2514-2522.

Mitchell AS, Browning PGF, Baxter MG (2007) Neurotoxic lesions of the medial mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus disrupt reinforcer devaluation effects in rhesus monkeys. J Neurosci 27:11289-11295.

Mitchell AS, Baxter MG, Gaffan D (2007) Dissociable performance on scene learning and strategy implementation after lesions to magnocellular mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. J Neurosci 27:11888-11895.

Culley DJ, Raghavan SV, Waly M, Baxter MG, Yukhananov R, Deth RC, Crosby G (2007) Nitrous oxide decreases cortical methionine synthase transiently but produces lasting memory impairment in aged rats. Anesth Analg 105:83-88.
Baxter MG, Gaffan D, Kyriazis DA, Mitchell AS (2007) Orbital prefrontal cortex is required for object-in-place scene memory but not performance of a strategy implementation task. J Neurosci 27:11327-11333.
Fletcher BR, Baxter MG, Guzowski JF, Shapiro ML, Rapp PR (2007) Selective cholinergic depletion of the hippocampus spares both behaviorally induced Arc transcription and spatial learning and memory. Hippocampus 17:227-234.


Zhuo JM, Prescott SL, Murray ME, Zhang HY, Baxter MG, Nicolle MM (2006) Early discrimination reversal learning impairment and preserved spatial learning in a longitudinal study of Tg2576 APPsw mice. Neurobiol Aging 28:1248-1257.

Black YD, Maclaren FR, Naydenov AV, Carlezon WA, Jr., Baxter MG, Konradi C (2006) Altered attention and prefrontal cortex gene expression in rats after binge-like exposure to cocaine during adolescence. J Neurosci 26:9656-9665.


Rodefer JS, Murphy ER, Baxter MG (2005) PDE10A inhibition reverses subchronic PCP-induced deficits in attentional set-shifting in rats. Eur J Neurosci 21:1070-1076.

Crosby C, Culley DJ, Baxter MG, Yukhananov R, Crosby G (2005) Spatial memory performance 2 weeks after general anesthesia in adult rats. Anesth Analg 101:1389-1392.

Sharma N, Baxter MG, Petravicz J, Bragg DC, Schienda A, Standaert DG, Breakefield XO (2005) Impaired motor learning in mice expressing torsinA with the DYT1 dystonia mutation.


Chen KC, Baxter MG, Rodefer JS (2004) Central blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors disrupts affective and attentional set-shifting. Eur J Neurosci 20:1081-1088.

Culley DJ, Baxter MG, Crosby CA, Yukhananov R, Crosby G (2004) Impaired acquisition of spatial memory 2 weeks after isoflurane and isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia in aged rats. Anesth Analg 99:1393-1397.
Culley DJ, Baxter MG, Yukhananov R, Crosby G (2004) Long-term impairment of acquisition of a spatial memory task following isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia in rats. Anesthesiology 100:309-314.
Frick KM, Kim JJ, Baxter MG (2004) Effects of complete immunotoxin lesions of the cholinergic basal forebrain on fear conditioning and spatial learning. Hippocampus 14:244-254.
Janisiewicz AM, Jackson O, 3rd, Firoz EF, Baxter MG (2004) Environment-spatial conditional learning in rats with selective lesions of medial septal cholinergic neurons. Hippocampus 14:265-273.
Parent MB, Baxter MG (2004) Septohippocampal acetylcholine: involved in but not necessary for learning and memory? Learn Mem 11:9-20.

Vuckovich JA, Semel ME, Baxter MG (2004) Extensive lesions of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons do not impair spatial working memory. Learn Mem 11:87-94.

2003 & Earlier

Janisiewicz AM, Baxter MG (2003) Transfer effects and conditional learning in rats with selective lesions of medial septal/diagonal band cholinergic neurons. Behav Neurosci 117:1342-1352.
Fox MT, Barense MD, Baxter MG (2003) Perceptual attentional set-shifting is impaired in rats with neurotoxic lesions of posterior parietal cortex. J Neurosci 23:676-681.
Culley DJ, Baxter M, Yukhananov R, Crosby G (2003) The memory effects of general anesthesia persist for weeks in young and aged rats. Anesth Analg 96:1004-1009.
Vale-Martinez AM, Baxter MG, Eichenbaum H (2002) Selective lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons produce anterograde and retrograde deficits in a social transmission of food preference task in rats. Eur J Neurosci 16:983-998.
Baxter MG, Murray EA (2002) The amygdala and reward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:563-573.
Barense MD, Fox MT, Baxter MG (2002) Aged rats are impaired on an attentional set-shifting task sensitive to medial frontal cortex damage in young rats. Learn Mem 9:191-201.
Baxter MG, Murray EA (2001) Opposite relationship of hippocampal and rhinal cortex damage to delayed nonmatching-to-sample deficits in monkeys. Hippocampus 11:61-71.
Berger-Sweeney J, Stearns NA, Murg SL, Floerke-Nashner LR, Lappi DA, Baxter MG (2001) Selective immunolesions of cholinergic neurons in mice: effects on neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and behavior. J Neurosci 21:8164-8173.
Cahill JFX, Baxter MG (2001) Cholinergic and noncholinergic septal neurons modulate strategy selection in spatial learning. Eur J Neurosci 14:1856-1864.
Kim JJ, Baxter MG (2001) Multiple brain-memory systems: the whole does not equal the sum of its parts. Trends Neurosci 24:324-330.
Baxter MG, Parker A, Lindner CCC, Izquierdo AD, Murray EA (2000) Control of response selection by reinforcer value requires interaction of amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 20:4311-4319.
Berger-Sweeney J, Stearns NA, Frick KM, Beard B, Baxter MG (2000) Cholinergic basal forebrain is critical for social transmission of food preferences. Hippocampus 10:729-738.
Baxter MG, Holland PC, Gallagher M (1997) Disruption of decrements in conditioned stimulus processing by selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input. J Neurosci 17:5230-5236.
Baxter MG, Bucci DJ, Sobel TJ, Williams MJ, Gorman LK, Gallagher M (1996) Intact spatial learning following lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. NeuroReport 7:1417-1420.
Baxter MG, Gallagher M (1996) Intact spatial learning in both young and aged rats following selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input. Behav Neurosci 110:460-467.

Baxter MG, Bucci DJ, Gorman LK, Wiley RG, Gallagher M (1995) Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic cells: Effects on learning and memory in rats. Behav Neurosci 109:714-722.


Baxter Laboratory
Lab Location: Icahn Building

Mount Sinai School of Medicine
One Gustave L. Levy Place
Box 1065
New York, NY 10029

Courier Address:
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
1425 Madison Avenue, Room 9-23
New York, NY 10029